Bitumen

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The expertise of our company lies in offering optimum quality bitumen to our clients. This product is a dense, highly viscous, petroleum-based hydrocarbon that is classified into two types. The first one is the natural one which is found in deposits such as oil sands and pitch lakes and the other is the refined bitumen obtained from the residue of the crude oil’s distillation. Bitumen contains other elements such as 2% Oxygen, 11% Hydrogen and 87% Carbon.

As mentioned above, this product is a hydrocarbon with high molecular weight including oil, resin, and asphaltene. The existence of 5 to 30% of asphaltene in bitumen causes the hardness of bitumen.

Bitumen is produced in two ways, as follow:

1) Straight Run

2) Air Blowing which is done based on batch or continues process

Bitumen is mainly used in roads construction and insulation, for either paving grade or roofing grade. This product is divided into different grades and types according to different processes and reports of several physical tests, such as penetration test, viscosity test, flash point test, solubility test, softening point test, ductility test and some more.

Here is the list of Bitumen grades and types: Products List

Bitumen supplied by Infinity Galaxy
Vacuum Bottom (VB) Price

Bitumen is mainly derived from vacuum bottom in oil refineries. Bitumen manufacturers refer to it the heaviest part of crude oil, which is the base material for producing bitumen.

The below-mentioned items affect straightly on the Vacuum Bottom (VB) Price:

  • Fuel price
  • Crude oil price
  • Political conditions
  • Currency rates equality
  • Bitumen demand and supply rates in the market, and
  • The rate of demands on the hot season of the year when constructions are increased

These items are responsible for the vacuum bottom price changes.

Bitumen Drumming

Infinity Galaxy has a group of well-trained workers specified for the drumming operation, who do their job as best as they can. Therefore Infinity Galaxy has less leakaged drum or Bitumen leakage or spillage than the other suppliers.

  • Tar

Tar or Pitch is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbons, extracted from a large variety of primary materials through destructive distillation.

Tar and Pitch are used interchangeably but tar is mostly referred to liquid substances and pitch is mostly used for solid or viscoelastic ones.

Both tar and pitch are applied to viscous types of asphalt.

Tar generally has 3 forms:

1) Coal tar

2) Wood tar

3) Mineral tar

Coal tar is the side product obtained all along with the production of coal gas. Coal tar is used for preserving timber, laying macadam roads, etc. In the process first, coal is heated in sealed iron vessels. Then the evaporated gases are lead to some specific tubes. These tubes are circulated with cooling water. The out coming material is nothing but coal tar which is a dense, smelly and black liquid.

Wood tar is obtained by the distillation of resinous woods like pines. The distillation of resinous wood provides the creosote oil which has a strong preservative ability.

Mineral tar is provided by the exploitation of kerogens. Kerogens are generally made from bituminous shale’s which are only rocks. Volatile content of mineral tar is very limited.

  • Gilsonite

Gilsonite or asphaltit or asphaltum is a natural resinous hydrocarbon. As it can be found in northeastern Utah, it is also known as unitahite. Gilsonite is similar to hard petroleum asphalt and is soluble in aromatic and aliphatic solvents, as well as petroleum asphalt. Because of the gilsonite’s unique compatibility, it is mostly used to solidify softer petroleum products. Gilsonite is a shiny, black substance similar to the mineral Obsidian. Gilsonite is a feeble material that can be crushed into a dark brown powder.

The addition of gilsonite to asphalt cement or hot mix asphalt causes the production of paving mixes with more cohesion.

Infinity Galaxy Gilsonite Sample
  • Asphalt

Asphalt, naturally occurring pitch, mineral tar, mineral pitch or even bitumen, is an adhesive, black and viscose liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. Asphalt can also be classified as a pitch. Asphalt is a commixture of alumina, lime, silica, and asphaltic bitumen. Asphalt is sorted into two types as follow:

1) Natural Asphalt

2) Residual Asphalt

Natural Asphalt

As its name shows, natural asphalt is derived from nature mainly from lakes and rocks.

    Lake Asphalt

The lake asphalt contains 40 to 70% of pure bitumen which is boiled in a tank and purified. The output is refined asphalt which has the appliance in road constructions and industry.

    Rock asphalt

Rock asphalt contains 10 to 15% of pure bitumen and calcareous matter.

Rocks are crushed and heated and then are consolidated by sudden cooling. The extracted asphalt is applied for paving tiles, etc.

Residual Asphalt

Residual asphalt is made artificially by the distillation of crude petroleum oil with an asphaltic base.

Forms of Asphalt

1) Cutback

2) Mastic

3) Asphalt Cement

4) Asphalt Emulsion

Cutback Asphalt

Cutback asphalt is in liquid form. When asphalt is liquefied through a technical process and is dissolved in a volatile solvent, cutback asphalt is obtained. It is applied in manufacturing bituminous paint, repairing roofs, etc.

Mastic Asphalt

Mastic asphalt is obtained by heating natural asphalt. Mastic asphalt is dense and has no voids. It’s in solid form and can be used in a damp proofing course.

Asphalt Cement

Natural asphalt is pressed under high-temperature air to get asphalt cement.

Asphalt cement is plastic in nature and is used for roofing, flooring also in waterproofing materials.

Asphalt Emulsion

Asphalt emulsion is got by adding 50 to 60% water and 1% emulsifier to the natural asphalt. The emulsifier acts as a waterproof when water evaporates, so it can be used in cold conditions.

Comparison between Tar and Bitumen and asphalt

Property Asphalt Bitumen Tar
Color Blackish brown Dark color Deep black
State Solid/ semi-solid solid Viscous liquid
Carbon low Medium high
Water Resistance more more less
Acid Resistance more more less
Adhesive Power less more high
Setting Time less less more

 

  • Middle East Bitumen

The Middle East is the most prominent hub in which various grades and types of bitumen are produced and exported.
As a piece of solid evidence to this fact, Iran efficiently is the world’s sixth-largest manufacturer of bitumen in different grades. There are numerous companies in the Middle East which are bitumen manufacturer. They use the extracted crude oil to produce bitumen. Companies such as Jey Oil, Pasargad Oil Company (POC), produce their brands such as Jey Embossed Drum, POC Embossed Drum and others like Black Gold, Kasra, Parsian Energy, Sebco and so on are working alongside the more than 370 refineries in the Middle East producing bitumen in all grades and exporting their products in bulk and container shipment to the entire world through Jebel Ali port. The exported tonnage has been estimated at 5 million metric tons.
Good to know that in some Indian states, the government only accept Jey Embossed Drum or POC Embossed Drum from contractors. To identify Jey Embossed Drum both having batch number and “JEY OIL CO” embossed on the top of the drums are needed.

  • Iraqi Bitumen

Iraqi bitumen is the bitumen which is extracted from oil wells in Kurdistan and southern Iraq.

As this variety of bitumen has not been desulfurized, it is almost malodorous and its spot test is positive, due to the presence of sulfur. Moreover, the solubility its solubility is less than 99.8, and its ductility is more than 1 meter even up to 1.5 meters. Although Iraqi bitumen penetration grade is 60/70, It’s possible to supply this product with the grade of 80/100, but it will be costlier.

Since Iraq has a shortage of drumming factories, bitumen steel drums are imported from neighbor countries to this area. Because these imported drums had been stuffed and loaded and unloaded once before the import, they are poor in quality. As a result, Iraqi bitumen has a low quality and is less expensive compared to other types of bitumen in the Persian Gulf and the Middle East.

Iraqi bitumen also suffers from unwanted properties including higher durability, viscosity and thermal stability, as well as proper stickiness of the aggregates and fixed specifications during transportation, storage, and application process. This low quality product has a higher softening point in comparison with other bitumen grades in the Middle East.

 

 

  • UAE Bitumen

There are more than 50,000 MT of bitumen storage in Jebel Ali, Emirates hamriyah free zone where mother vessels and bulk tankers with the capacity of over 7000 ton are loaded and bulk shipped to other areas. The UAE is one of the major transit hubs in the world. In other words, Emirates is one of the 5 largest ports in the world. Thereby, Jebel Ali is considered as one of the major bitumen exporting hub in the world.

  • Market  Share
Total:  $ 8 billion in 2019
South Korea
17%
Malaysia
3.9%
Emirates
3.3%
Spain
8.4%
Netherlands
4.2%
Sweden
3.0%
Greece
2.1%
Canada
8.8%
Hungary
Iran
3.2%
China
1.6%
Germany
6.9%
Belarus
1.9%
Poland
1.3%
Czech Republic
Belgium
1.5%
America
3.9%
Singapore
10%
Italy
4.6%
France
Venezuela
1.3%
Ivory
Coast
Serbia
Thailand
1.1%
Iraq
Russia

As the chart shows, the bitumen production and export due to GDP is growing.

  • Bitumen Spot Test

In this test, a specific amount of bitumen is dissolved completely in a proper solvent. If bitumen isn’t dissolved properly, the process will be repeated from the beginning. In the following step, the solution is put aside in a 30c place for 30 minutes. Afterward, the technicians drop a few of the solution on a filter paper and wait. When the spot dries, the technicians observe the stain. If the stain is uniform in color and form, the test result will be negative. If not, the test result will be positive.

The significance of result positivity and negativity

A negative result means there is no additive in the tested bitumen, and it is considered pure. On the contrary, a positive result shows the tested bitumen contain some additives.

For instance, Iraqi bitumen spot test result is positive, because there are high amounts of sulfur. This indicates that Iraqi bitumen had not been desulfurized.

  • Bitumen Ductility Test

Bitumen ductility means the bitumen ability to deform under high-weight loads without cracking.

Bitumen ductility test is conducted by the distance which a standard briquette of bitumen with a cross-section of 1cm / 1 cm at its neck, will expand without breaking when stretched at the rate of 5cm/min at 27c.

To test the ductility, the bitumen sample should be heated and poured in the briquette mold placed on a plate. Then the excess substance should be cut with a hot knife.

After cooling, the mold is placed in a water bath at 27c for at least 90 min. After the removal of the sides of the mold, the clips are hooked on the machine and the pointer on the scale set to zero. The pull is applied using the motor at a standard rate of 5cm/min. The extension up to the point of breaking in centimeters is reported as the ductility value.

  • Bitumen Solubility Test

Bitumen solubility in carbon disulfide, naphtha 88 and carbon tetrachloride is important in road construction.

Insolubility is a sign of the presence of mineral matter in the bitumen so; the bitumen content is measured employing its solubility in carbon disulfide. To experiment, a small sample of the bitumen becomes dissolved in 100 ml of carbon disulfide and the solution will be filtered through a filtering mat. After the retained material dries, it is weighed and used to calculate the bitumen content.

 

 

 

  • Bitumen Viscosity Test

The purpose of the viscosity test is to determine the viscosity level of the desired bitumen. First, the specialists warm the sample to a temperature of 60c for the tars and pitches and a temperature of 90c for bitumens. They heat the sample until it becomes liquid. Then they pour about 20 ml into a suitable vial and maintain it to a temperature of 135 c. The sample is stirred occasionally to prevent local overheating and to allow the trapped air to escape.

In the following process, the specialists fill the viscometer and place it into an oven at 135c for ten minutes.

Then the filled viscometer is vertically put in a water bath.

Later, the specialists establish a vacuum of 30 em of mercury in the vacuum system and connect it to the viscometer with the valve closed. After the viscometer has remained in the bath for 30 min, they open the valve and allow the asphalt to flow into viscometer.

The following step is to remove the viscometer from the bath and place in an oven at 135 c until it drains off thoroughly from the viscometer.

There are some items to be explained:

You may come across to “kt” that you don’t know the meaning. kt means viscosity poises. K stands for selected calibration factor, in poise per second and t stands for flow time, in seconds.

Most importantly, too viscous bitumen would result in an inadequate and inconsistent coating of the aggregates.

Similarly, very low viscosity would result in the inappropriate coating as the bitumen tends to flow.

Therefore viscosity at 135c is very determinative in the quality of the bond between the aggregates

  • Bitumen Softening Point

Softening point is the temperature at which bitumen becomes soft. Softening point test is also known as the ring and ball test. Its purpose is to determine the temperature at which a standard ball passes through a disc of bitumen contained in a brass ring. The brass ring which contains the bitumen sample is suspended in water or glycerin, at the desired temperature. Then a steel ball is placed on the bitumen disc. In the meantime, the substance is heated at a rate of 5c per minute.

As a result of the test, the temperature at which the softened bitumen touches the bottom of the metal plate, placed with a short distance below the ring, is noted as the sample bitumen softening point.

  • Bitumen Flash Point Test

Bitumen flash point test indicates the temperature at which it releases vapors which ignite with a flash in the presence of fire for a few seconds. It is very critical and determinative in applying a grade of bitumen in a region. If an inappropriate grade of bitumen is used for an area, hazardous consequences will happen.

As a clarification, if a grade of bitumen with a low flash point is applied in a hot and tropic area, the bitumen will probably ignite.

To conduct the test, the specialists bring a small flame close to the melted bitumen and note the temperature at which the earliest flash occurs, as the flashpoint.

Then, they continue by further heating, to find out the fire point.

The temperature, at which the surface ignites and burns for at least 5 seconds, is noted as the fire point.

  • Bitumen Penetration Test

Penetration test measures the toughness of the bitumen. By estimating the vertical penetrating depth of the laboratory needle in the test sample, its hardness or softness is determined.

The needle penetrates the bitumen, for five seconds. Important to know that the desired temperature for this experiment is 25 c.

As a brief introduction to the test device, penetrometer is made up of a needle by the weight of 100 g and a pin for releasing and locking the needle in any position.

  • Bitumen Specific Gravity Test

This test is conducted in 27c using a standard pyknometer. The laboratorist warms the bitumen and transfers to the pyknometer. After the bitumen lost its warmth, the laboratorist weighs it. He fills the space of the pyknometer with water and weighs again. Then he weighs the empty cleaned pyknometer, which has been filled with water. So the weight of the empty pyknometer is also calculated. To determine the specific gravity:

If we consider W1 as the weight of pyknometer, W2 as the weight of the pyknometer with bitumen, W3 as the pyknometer with bitumen and water and W4 as the weight of the pyknometer and water, then the specific gravity is obtained as below

GB= [(w2 – w1)/ (w2 – w1) – (w3 – w4)]

The required specific gravity of bitumen for road construction ranges from 1.02 to 1.04.

  • Determination of Bitumen Loss on Heating

Heating a bituminous substance causes the loss of its volatile constituents and this leads to the hardness of the bitumen. Loss on heating test is done for the purpose of assessing the susceptibility of bitumen to heating. To experiment, the specialists put a sample of bitumen in a steel pan. They weigh the pan and bitumen together.

Then the specialists put the pan on a rotating shelf mounted in a ventilated oven for 5 hours at 163c. At the end of the test, the specialists weigh the pan again. So the loss of weight will be carefully noted. The remained residue will be used for further bitumen tests, to determine the change in the value of penetration.

  • New Steel Drum Stuffing in Port of Loading

All petrochemicals and petroleum products, including bitumen, are loaded at Infinity Galaxy exclusive yard in the port of loading with the attendance of company inspector and third-party inspector. For those of the loadings that may have leakage and will make the container dirty, we have PP Sheet to cover the container properly which prevent the dirtiness.

110 short drums and 110 long drums will be loaded into a 20 ft container. The net weight of the long drum in the 20 ft container is 20±1 MT and the gross weight is 22±1 MT. The net weight for short drum in the 20 ft container is 16.5±1 MT and the gross weight is 17.5±1 MT. Short drums are mainly destined to Chittagong port of Bangladesh. All the mentioned procedures are called stuffing. In the following, the customs declaration and issuance of export documents based on net and gross weight will be run.

  • New Steel Drum De-stuffing in the port of Discharge

After the commodity arrives at the destination and receives an arrival notice by the consignee or notify party at the destination port, the customer will request his commodity release by going to the shipping office and presenting the original Bill of Lading or surrender message (Telex Release). The commodities will be permitted to exit at the shipping yard only by the destination customs clearance. The unloading of the drums from the container is called Drum De-stuffing. All the mentioned process of discharging the commodities of the container and the returning of the container to the shipping agent are New Steel Drum De-stuffing in the port of Discharge.

  • Decanting plant

Decanting plant is a machine which is used for the constructions when starting a project. Decanting plant has a capacity of 6 to 9 bitumen drums and even more. The constructors heat a specific number of drums in the decanting plant. Then empty the drums and transfer the bitumen to the project. The vacant steel drums will be scrapped and sold separately. Decanting plant can be easily transported to different projects.

Infinity Galaxy Decanting Plant