Base Oil

Base oil types  generally are as below :

Mineral 

Synthetic 

The mineral base oil can be obtained by means of refining crude oil. A little portion of the crude oil, about 1 to 2% of a crude oil barrel is subjected to be refined to produce base oil.  The rest is used to produce gasoline, diesel, kerosene, coke, asphalt and other hydrocarbons. In the course of the heating process, light and heavy hydrocarbons separate. The light ones will be processed to produce petrol and other fuels, while the heavier ones are refined to produce bitumen and base oil.

The synthetic type is manufactured through chemical synthesis. This product is sorted into paraffinic and naphthenic types based on the chemical structure of the molecules. It has hydrocarbons with 18 to 40 carbon atoms.

Naphthenic types have better solubility and qualifications at low temperatures compared to the other base oil types. Lubricating oil has about 1% to 20% of specific additives mixed with base oil.

The pure sample is obtained by the hydrogenation process in which sulfur and aromatics will be removed by applying hydrogen under high pressure. The point of adding chemical additives to the base oil is to improve its quality for the products in terms of friction. For instance, certain types of motor oils contain more than 20 additives. Base oil has been categorized into five main groups in terms of viscosity, the proportion of saturates and sulfur content, and other factors as below.

Group 1

API (American Petroleum Institute) has named this group as base stocks which contain less than 90% saturates and greater than 0.03 % sulfur with a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.

Group 2

API ( American Petroleum Institute ) has named this group as base stocks which contain more than or equal to 90% saturates and less than or equal to 0.03 % sulfur with a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.

Group 3

API (American Petroleum Institute) has named this group as base stocks which contain more than or equal to 90% saturates and less than or equal to 0.03 % sulfur with a viscosity index greater than or equal to 120. Group 3 is also known as synthetic technology oils or hydrocracked synthetic oils.

Group 4

The viscosity index of this group ranges from 125 to 200.

Group 4 consists of synthetic oils which are made of Poly Alpha Olefins (PAO). PAO Oils are much more stable in various temperatures compared to others. PAO oils are highly recommended for being used in freezing areas as in Northern Europe as well as hot areas as in the Middle East.

Group 5

Group 5 is devoted to naphthenic oils and esters.

Base oil Grades & Specifications

Base oil exists in the market in different grades as follow

SN 150

SN 300

SN 500

SN 650

SN stands for Solvent Neutral base oil and the following numbers are based on the SUS Viscosity at 40 c. SN 150, SN 300 and SN 500 are light in color but the rest is dark. As a general notion, the more viscosity index is, the darker the color will be.

  • Base Oil SN 150

Base Oil SN 150 Specification

Test items  Test Method  Test Results
Appearance     Visual  Bright & Clear
Color   ASTM D 1500   2.0 – 2.2
Density @ 30 C   ASTM D 1298    0.870
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 C   ASTM D 445  30.0 – 31.54
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 C   ASTM D 445  5.0 – 5.5
Viscosity Index   ASTM D 2270   90 – 92
Flash Point, C   ASTM D 92  200 – 210
Pour Point, C   ASTM D 97  -3
  • Base Oil SN 300

Base oil SN 300  is a light grade oil with long shelf life and high thermal stability.

Base Oil SN 300 Specification

Test items  Test Method  Test Results
Appearance     Visual  Bright & Clear
Color   ASTM D 1500   2.0 – 2.5
Density @ 30 C   ASTM D 1298    0.870 – 0.880
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 C   ASTM D 445   45.0 – 65.0
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 C   ASTM D 445  6.5 – 8.0
Viscosity Index   ASTM D 2270   89 – 92
Flash Point, C   ASTM D 92  210 – 220
Pour Point, C   ASTM D 97  -3
  • Base Oil SN 500

Base oil SN 500 is the most demanded grade among others. SN 500 is defined as a light grade base oil. It is highly used in lubricant productions.

Usage: Engine oils, gear oils, greases, hydraulic oils, transformer oils

Base Oil SN 500 Specification

Test items  Test Method  Test Results
Appearance     Visual  Bright & Clear
Color   ASTM D 1500  L 2.0 – 2.5
Density @ 30 C   ASTM D 1298  0.885 –  0.890
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 C   ASTM D 445  97.5 – 102.0
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 C   ASTM D 445  10.5 – 11.5
Viscosity Index   ASTM D 2270  89.0 – 92.0
Flash Point, C   ASTM D 92  225 – 235
Pour Point, C   ASTM D 97  -3