Performance Grade Bitumen

Bitumen Performance Grade is a type of bitumen which is graded according to its performance at different alternating temperatures. There is a tendency to divide PG grade into two divisions of high-temperature and low-temperature pavement services. Here comes the major issue for high-temperature performance which is rutting, that normally takes a while to amass. Thus, the temperature is measured within a week and the highest is considered to be the high climatic temperature. On the other side, there is a possibility for thermal cracking at low temperature. For both high and low temperature, PG grades are graded in 6 c rise. The average seven-day maximum pavement temperature typically changes from 46 c to 82 c and the minimum pavement temperature changes from -46 c to -10 c. For instance, bitumen PG 64-10 meets performance factor at an average seven-day maximum pavement temperature of 64 c also at a minimum pavement temperature of -10c.

Mind the point that maximum pavement temperature is usually higher than the air temperature by about 20c because the dark color of pavement absorbs the heat and keep it. As PG grades are mainly divided into Modified and Unmodified bitumen types, keep in mind the following hint which helps to differentiate the mentioned types. To distinguish the modified from unmodified bitumen, we add both low and high-temperature grades together. If the sum is greater than 90, the substance is likely to be a polymer modified binder. As an example, a PG 76-22 is considered as a polymer-modified binder since the sum is 98. Another example, a PG 64-10 is an unmodified binder.

PG grades generally are mostly applied in paving constructions and reconstructions, sealing of edges, crack sealing, spray applications for bridge deck and in both dense-graded and open-graded Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). PG grades which are well-structured against thermal cracking are PG 58-34, PG 64-22, PG 64-28 and PG 76-22. PG grades which are resistant to rutting are PG 70-22, PG 70-28, PG 76-28 and PG 82-22.

PG 58-28 is specifically used in very cold regions.

Performance Grade PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 Test Method
10 16 22 10 16 22 10 16 22 10 16 10  
Average 7 day maximum pavement design temperature, c 52 58 64 ≤70 ≤76
Minimum pavement design temperature, c ≥10 ≥16 ≥22 ≥10 ≥16 ≥22 ≥10 ≥16 ≥22 ≥10 ≥16 ≥10
Original Binder
Flash point temperature, minimum, c 230 AASHTO T48
Viscosity maximum 3 Pa.s , test temperature, c 135 AASHTO T316
Dynamic shear G/Sin o Minimum 1 KPa test temperature, c 52 58 64 70 76 AASHTO T315
Rolling Thin Film Oven Test AASHTO T214
Mass change maximum percent 1.00
Dynamic shear G/Sin o Minimum 2.2 KPa test temperature, @ 10 rad/s  c 52 58 64 70 76 AASHTO T315
Pressure Aging Vessel AASHTO R28
PAV aging temperature , c 90 100 100 100(110) 100(110)
Dynamic shear G/Sin o Minimum 5000 KPa test temperature @ 10 rad/s  c 25 22 19 28 25 22 31 28 25 34 31 37 AASHTO T315
Creep stiffness S maximum 300 Mpa

m-value minimum 0.300

Test temperature @ 60s c

0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 0 -6 0 AASHTO T313
Direct tension

Failure strain minimum 1%

Test temperature @ 1mm/min , c

0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 0 -6 0 AASHTO T 314
Critical low cracking temperature

Critical cracking determined by PP42

Test temperature

0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 0 -6 0 AASHTO PP42
Bitumen Performance grade 46/22
Bitumen PG 46/22 Superpave Performance Grade
SPECIFICATION UNIT VALUE METHOD
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) 46 ASTM D6373
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) – 34 ASTM D6373
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) Degree Celsius (°C) 230 min ASTM D92
Rotational Viscosity, 135°C Pascal Second (Pa.s) 3 max ASTM D4402
Dynamic Shear, 70°C Degree Celsius (°C) 46 min ASTM D6373
Mass Loss Weight Percentage (WT %) 1 max ASTM D6
Creep Stiffness Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6648
Direct Tension Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6723
Absolute Viscosity, 60°C Poise (P) 295 ASTM D4402
Penetration, 25°C 1/10 Millimetres (mm) 300 ASTM D5
Specific Gravity Kilogram per Cubic Meter (kg/m³) 1.026 min ASTM D70
APPLICATION TEMPERATURE
APPLICATION UNIT RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Storage Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 50-163
Spraying Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 177 max
Bitumen Performance grade 52/28
Bitumen PG 52-28 Superpave Performance Grade
SPECIFICATION UNIT VALUE METHOD
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) 46 ASTM D6373
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) – 34 ASTM D6373
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) Degree Celsius (°C) 230 min ASTM D92
Rotational Viscosity, 135°C Pascal Second (Pa.s) 3 max ASTM D4402
Dynamic Shear, 70°C Degree Celsius (°C) 46 min ASTM D6373
Mass Loss Weight Percentage (WT %) 1 max ASTM D6
Creep Stiffness Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6648
Direct Tension Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6723
Absolute Viscosity, 60°C Poise (P) 295 ASTM D4402
Penetration, 25°C 1/10 Millimetres (mm) 300 ASTM D5
Specific Gravity Kilogram per Cubic Meter (kg/m³) 1.026 min ASTM D70
APPLICATION TEMPERATURE
APPLICATION UNIT RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Storage Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 50-163
Spraying Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 177 max
Bitumen Performance grade 58/16
Bitumen PG 58/16 Superpave Performance Grade
SPECIFICATION UNIT VALUE METHOD
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) 46 ASTM D6373
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) – 34 ASTM D6373
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) Degree Celsius (°C) 230 min ASTM D92
Rotational Viscosity, 135°C Pascal Second (Pa.s) 3 max ASTM D4402
Dynamic Shear, 70°C Degree Celsius (°C) 46 min ASTM D6373
Mass Loss Weight Percentage (WT %) 1 max ASTM D6
Creep Stiffness Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6648
Direct Tension Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6723
Absolute Viscosity, 60°C Poise (P) 295 ASTM D4402
Penetration, 25°C 1/10 Millimetres (mm) 300 ASTM D5
Specific Gravity Kilogram per Cubic Meter (kg/m³) 1.026 min ASTM D70
APPLICATION TEMPERATURE
APPLICATION UNIT RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Storage Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 50-163
Spraying Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 177 max
Bitumen Performance grade 64/22
Bitumen PG 64/22 Superpave Performance Grade
SPECIFICATION UNIT VALUE METHOD
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) 46 ASTM D6373
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) – 34 ASTM D6373
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) Degree Celsius (°C) 230 min ASTM D92
Rotational Viscosity, 135°C Pascal Second (Pa.s) 3 max ASTM D4402
Dynamic Shear, 70°C Degree Celsius (°C) 46 min ASTM D6373
Mass Loss Weight Percentage (WT %) 1 max ASTM D6
Creep Stiffness Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6648
Direct Tension Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6723
Absolute Viscosity, 60°C Poise (P) 295 ASTM D4402
Penetration, 25°C 1/10 Millimetres (mm) 300 ASTM D5
Specific Gravity Kilogram per Cubic Meter (kg/m³) 1.026 min ASTM D70
APPLICATION TEMPERATURE
APPLICATION UNIT RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Storage Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 50-163
Spraying Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 177 max
Bitumen Performance grade 70/10
Bitumen PG 70/10 Superpave Performance Grade
SPECIFICATION UNIT VALUE METHOD
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) 46 ASTM D6373
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) – 34 ASTM D6373
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) Degree Celsius (°C) 230 min ASTM D92
Rotational Viscosity, 135°C Pascal Second (Pa.s) 3 max ASTM D4402
Dynamic Shear, 70°C Degree Celsius (°C) 46 min ASTM D6373
Mass Loss Weight Percentage (WT %) 1 max ASTM D6
Creep Stiffness Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6648
Direct Tension Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6723
Absolute Viscosity, 60°C Poise (P) 295 ASTM D4402
Penetration, 25°C 1/10 Millimetres (mm) 300 ASTM D5
Specific Gravity Kilogram per Cubic Meter (kg/m³) 1.026 min ASTM D70
APPLICATION TEMPERATURE
APPLICATION UNIT RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Storage Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 50-163
Spraying Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 177 max
Bitumen Performance grade 76/10
Bitumen PG 76/10 Superpave Performance Grade
SPECIFICATION UNIT VALUE METHOD
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) 46 ASTM D6373
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) – 34 ASTM D6373
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) Degree Celsius (°C) 230 min ASTM D92
Rotational Viscosity, 135°C Pascal Second (Pa.s) 3 max ASTM D4402
Dynamic Shear, 70°C Degree Celsius (°C) 46 min ASTM D6373
Mass Loss Weight Percentage (WT %) 1 max ASTM D6
Creep Stiffness Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6648
Direct Tension Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6723
Absolute Viscosity, 60°C Poise (P) 295 ASTM D4402
Penetration, 25°C 1/10 Millimetres (mm) 300 ASTM D5
Specific Gravity Kilogram per Cubic Meter (kg/m³) 1.026 min ASTM D70
APPLICATION TEMPERATURE
APPLICATION UNIT RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Storage Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 50-163
Spraying Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 177 max
Bitumen Performance grade 82/10
Bitumen PG 82/10 Superpave Performance Grade
SPECIFICATION UNIT VALUE METHOD
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) 46 ASTM D6373
Maximum Pavement Design Temp. Degree Celsius (°C) – 34 ASTM D6373
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) Degree Celsius (°C) 230 min ASTM D92
Rotational Viscosity, 135°C Pascal Second (Pa.s) 3 max ASTM D4402
Dynamic Shear, 70°C Degree Celsius (°C) 46 min ASTM D6373
Mass Loss Weight Percentage (WT %) 1 max ASTM D6
Creep Stiffness Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6648
Direct Tension Degree Celsius (°C) -24 ASTM D6723
Absolute Viscosity, 60°C Poise (P) 295 ASTM D4402
Penetration, 25°C 1/10 Millimetres (mm) 300 ASTM D5
Specific Gravity Kilogram per Cubic Meter (kg/m³) 1.026 min ASTM D70
APPLICATION TEMPERATURE
APPLICATION UNIT RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE
Storage Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 50-163
Spraying Temperature Degree Celsius (°C) 177 max